The Resources page is dedicated to providing links and resources pertaining to Westcliff University and external institutions.  This section of the website gives public available information about Westcliff University.   The Resource page provides ethical guidelines that Westcliff follows to help shape a more welcoming and ethical environment for both staff and students.  The section also gives links to external institutions and organizations that Westcliff finds crucial in higher learning.

AIR Code of Ethics and Professional Practice

Distance Education Associations

Links – Market Research 

Peer and Benchmark Schools

Public Information about Westcliff – External Websites



The Glossary lists and defines the terms often used by Westcliff University’s (WU) staff, faculty and the Institutional Research Department. WU includes crucial terms that are used by the university.

Westcliff University Glossary


Westcliff University Acronyms



The resources that are in Academic Performance Indicators pertain to key performance indicators (e.g., graduation rates and retention rates), college engagement, and assessments.  The information focuses on student academic performance and how the institutions can help flourish the students’ academic career.  Colleges and universities assess themselves by using student success from key performance metrics and learning outcomes.

2018 National Freshman Motivation Report (Ruffalo Noel Levitz)

The 2018 National Freshman Motivation to Complete College Report breaks down the study of seven strategies that motivate entering freshmen in becoming successful at an institution.  The report summarizes the findings of 93,000 students for each strategy and provides recommendations for the institution to implement so there would be a higher student success rate.  These strategies include academic and social engagement, motivation, diversity, academic support, advisors, professional development, and student engagement.

Assessment in Practice, NILOA

Wiggins & McTighe’s Backward Design is based on theoretical research in cognitive psychology and student achievement studies. Within the research-enhanced courses, assignments and instructional activities are designed for students to learn research process which collectively builds students’ competencies. Students are expected to exercise critical thinking in setting problems and conducting an inquiry; demonstrate information literacy in finding, evaluating, and using sources and considering evidence; and communicate effectively in expressing results in both oral and written formats.

Assessment Management Systems

The National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment provides a list of assessment management systems website and a brief summary of each link.

DEAC Graduation Rate Benchmarks

The Distance Education Accrediting Commission (DEAC) has announced that it will continue to utilize the graduation and program completion rate benchmarks that were established by the Commission in October 2016. By retaining the current benchmarks, DEAC will provide a valuable consistency in metrics, reporting, and assessments.

Higher Education in California

The Public Policy Institute of California addresses in detail several issues that are affecting California’s Higher Education System — these issues include: (1) California’s skill gap; (2) college access; (3) college completion; (4) equity and diversity; (5) investment; and (6) affordability. For each issue, the paper provides possible solutions that can rectify those problems.

Improving College Graduation Rates: A Closer Look at California State University

California State University implemented its first graduation initiative in 2009 to increase the graduation rates with relative success. The goals of the second initiative that launched in 2015 are for each campus to reach the top quartile among comparable colleges within 150% undergraduate program length and to mitigate the graduation gap for underrepresented minority students by half.  Although many of the campuses are on pace to surpass their goals, overall CSU still lags behind other institutions in graduating within 100% program length and the graduation disparity between minorities and their peers.  To improve the graduation rates, some CSU campuses provide remedial classes before the start of the program, increase advising and support services, and reduce bottleneck courses.

Promising Model Boost Retention – Part-Time Students

Bunker Hill Community College in Boston has been giving their students, in particular, part-time students, and the opportunity to enroll in learning communities.  These learning communities provide students with a combination of seminars, advisors and professional experience.  Studies have shown that these learning communities have a positive influence on student retention and achievement.

The 2018 Inside Higher Ed. Survey of Chief Academic Officers

The survey explores the debate on higher education in American society over whether colleges and their students respect the principles of free speech. A majority of provosts at both public and private institutions value civic engagement and inclusiveness. But on civic engagement, those at private institutions appear more confident that they have programs to engage students and that those programs are making a difference. The findings of the survey suggest that provosts are generally confident of the level of inclusiveness in their classrooms, but less so for minority students.

The Extensive Evidence of Co-Requisite Remediation’s Effectiveness

Professor Alexandra W. Logue et al. conducted a randomized controlled study on co-requisite math remediation.  The study shows that students indeed benefit from taking co-requisite remediation courses.

To Tackle Student Cheating, We Need to Reimagine University Assessment

Easy mills are increasingly becoming more of a problem at colleges because they allow students to pay others to write their essays.  To rectify the problem, the one proposed solution is developing authentic assessments which would better evaluate student learning.

Colleges and universities consider many factors when admitting prospective students.  These academic articles and whitepapers detail several factors postsecondary institutions consider when deciding whether or not to admit the students during the admission process.  Furthermore, the academic resources describe several factors that the students themselves consider when applying to college.

An ‘Easy’ SAT and Terrible Scores

Although the June 2018 SAT math portion appears to be easier than previous ones, students are upset that some are receiving lower math scores. Due to the grading curve, it appears that a single missed answer can cause a large change in the overall score.

California High School Grads Increasingly Leave State for College.  Here’s Where They Go.

More California high school graduates are attending out-of-state colleges due to the lack of space at California’s colleges and universities.  Non-California colleges and universities, especially in Arizona and Oregon, are accepting more California students because they pay higher tuition.

For Fate of SAT Writing Test, Watch California

The Board of Admissions and Relations with Schools (BOARS) of the University of California has the authority to eliminate the writing portion of the SAT during the UC admission process.  The board will consider the issue next year based on a “very faculty-driven, evidence-based analysis”.

New Approaches to Judging Quality in Higher Education, Profiles of Emerging Methods Apart from Traditional Accreditation

The whitepaper by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) examines several methods that determine whether colleges are providing adequate benefits for the stakeholders’ interests.  The paper is split into three parts: (1) challenges of the U.S. accreditation system; (2) new approaches for accreditation; and (3) the potential data that are used for quality review.

Race-Based School Criteria Roils Asian-Americans-Again

There has been a discourse about race-based affirmative action among Asian-Americans in regards to school enrollment for the past decades.  Asian-Americans, in particular, Chinese-Americans, have argued that affirmative action has been discriminatory towards them – requiring higher test scores than other minorities and capping the number of school acceptance based on their ethnicities.

Report of the Commission on International Student Recruitment, NACAC

Global engagement will manifest itself in many forms. Moving forward in this new global space will require a set of mapping skills to navigate unfamiliar terrain, skills which are just now developing at most institutions. The Commission finds this statement highly applicable to student recruitment and admission.  The following report offers an extensive description of the critical components of the Commission’s deliberations, and as an attempt to pull together the disparate sets of information that appear relevant to the admission profession, colleges and universities in general, in the future.

Shifting to an Active, Student-Centric Model to Drive Enrollment Growth

According to Lisa Braverman, it appears that colleges are similar to industries, in that, students are treated like a product.  To be a successful university, it must be active and student-centric; unfortunately, only some can make this drastic shift.

Smoking Gun on Anti-Asian Bias at Harvard

The Students for Fair Admissions is suing Harvard for discrimination Asian-American applications for not only considered academics for admission. Studies have shown that Asian-American compared to other minorities with the same economic background are disproportionately not being admitted by Harvard.

The Whitening of Asian Americans

Some Asian American students are suing Harvard University for discrimination arguing that the university is not accepting students solely on academic performance rather using demographics as a metric for acceptance.  A study conducted by Students for Fair Admissions supports some of the claims argued by the group of Asian American students.  On a deeper level, this evokes a sense of Asian Americans aligning their arguments with the other “privileged” group, whites. 

UK Visa Changes ‘Discriminate’ Against Indian Students

India is not one of the 26 countries that are included in the United Kingdom’s list of ‘fast-track’ countries, which eases student visa procedures.  The National Indian Students and Alumni Union (NISAU) argues that this policy is discriminatory towards Indians students because it classifies them as “high risk” and are evaluated differently than Chinese students.

Big Data and Analysts give the readers a list of intuitive academic resources that focus on data collecting, cleaning, and analyzing.  The education sector (and others) is moving towards a data-driven culture in which big data and analytics play a big part in the developmental success of the schools.  Some of the works in this category describe using the data as a manner for predictive analytics to help make key decisions.

4 Capabilities for Becoming Information-Driven

Scott Parker goes in-depth the four principals that allow organizations to be information-driven: (1) Incorporating Context; (2) Surfacing Meaning; (3) Self-Learning; and (4) Intuitive Presentation.

Achieving a Successful Application of Data in Population Health Incentives

To effectively produce successful health systems, data must be integrated with local and real-world experiences into actions for patient care.  To become successful with the given data, a team-based culture must be created and decisions must come from local practice-based evidence.

A Needed Shift in Defining Higher Education Value: Using Data to both Create and Prove Value

Becky Takeda-Tinker, President of Colorado State University-Global Campus, argues that qualitative and quantitative data should be a driving force to improve student learning outcomes, experience, and success.  According to Takeda-Tinker, the salaries of CSU-Global alumni have increased and alumni satisfaction is at 95 percent and employer satisfaction is at 98 percent.   At the institution, students, staff, and faculty have input on such issues as curriculum, workplace, work experience, and expertise, and technical and tutor support.  Moreover, the university regularly monitors and evaluates academic programs, learning outcomes, at-risk students and situations, and faculty to ensure that the school’s standards are being met.

Avoiding Icebergs on Higher Ed’s Big Data Seas

Gregory Fowler from Southern New Hampshire University discusses the importance of data in the decision-making process; however, other important factors like teamwork, leadership, and institutional mission to help drive the data and models.  Stakeholders tend to have a narrow view of their own self-interests, but they must be aware of others’ experiences and views to form comprehensive strategies.  For example, he discusses the difficulty of launching new online programs and measuring institutional and program outcomes.  He also describes that big data must not only be accurate but also provide enough data points throughout the students’ experience at the school.

Data-Driven Decision-Making: Leveraging Predictive Analytics More Widely

Mike Scheuermann of Drexel University wants to expand the access to predictive analytics at postsecondary institutions.  He argues that universities should cease to assume that only consulting firms can help with predictive analytics.  Institutions should use in-house resources, like faculty members that may already be well-versed in data science to create and develop predictive analytics.  In the future, as Scheuermann asserts, institutions as a whole, not just in the classroom, can use Predictive Analytics Dashboard Systems for valuable and real-time data.

Data-Planet Opens Up a Universe of Statistics to SAGE

From 2010 to 2012, Data-Planet was distributed by ProQuest and then became a standalone operation for 5 years. In January 2018, it joined with SAGE.  On one site, there are 500 databases and 50 billion data points. 

Eschewing Tradition for the Non-Traditional: Analytics and the Modern University

Peter Smith of the University of Maryland University College explains that big data and analytics have a large impact in higher education, in that, they are imperative to the success of an institution.  Similar to the business sector, postsecondary institutions will contract with other enterprises and vendors for innovation and technology.  Data and predictive analytics will provide students a personal experience will real-time information and the faculty and staff the ability to track transfer students.

From FOCUS to Artificial Intelligence: How Data has changed in Higher Education

Kristen Kennedy of Arizona State University details a brief history of how technology has shaped data at postsecondary institutions.  From using the FOCUS language to the advent of Google to the development of the Higher Education Data Warehouse to the creation of data programs like Microsoft Access to Artificial Intelligence, technology makes collecting information, analyzing data, and making reports more efficient.  Not only have Data become an integral part of any institution, it has also helped influence institutional policy-making.

From Perception to Measured Reality: Leverage Analytics to Improve Clinical & Economic Outcomes

There has been a push by the healthcare industry to use data for predictive and prescriptive analytics.  Using technologies such as cloud computing, artificial intelligence, and machine learning, the healthcare industry has been using them to simplify, organize, and automate information in hopes of helping the staff and their patients.  Since 2017, Ecolab has been incorporating multiple data into the cloud to provide the industry with both historical and real-time infection prevention information.

Going Wrong with Data

Although data are very valuable in making decisions, they sometimes come with uncertainty.  According to Greg Chmura, he asserts that although the data may be correct, they are sometimes irrelevant.  For example, data in the government sector can be inaccurate because of data entry error.  Few assumptions are made when working on unstructured data and these assumptions are sometimes end up being correct.  Chmura asserts that another data person can provide guidance with assumptions and predictive analysis.

How Big Data Will Change Our Lives

The infographic describes how Big Data can come from a variety of sources such as the open data, personal data, and the internet.  Furthermore, it presents the amount of data collected and how individuals, such as data analysts, and companies manage them.  Finally, it shows the effects big data will have on consumers from collecting data to the impact on the global economy.

How Colleges are Tackling Affordability – Inside Higher Education

The online journal expresses concerns with college tuition and affordability.  Several writers each write an article explaining a different aspect of the high cost at colleges and how to tackle those financial issues.  These issues range from tuition to student debt, with each writer elaborating on the negative effects they have on students.

How to Make Big Data Digestible

For universities and colleges to establish a data-driven culture they must have leaders who encourage and demand the expansion of data sharing and access.  Furthermore, leadership must create a governance that allows for dialogue and decision-making.

How to Overcome Obstacles and Make Data Part of the Institutional Decision-Making Fabric

Ben Sowter of QS Quacquarelli Symonds explains the roadblocks that are preventing colleges from becoming more data-driven.  He explains that a lack of leadership and resistance to change make it more difficult for institutions to make data a vital aspect at these colleges.  For institutions to become a data-driven decision making culture, the management process must include leaders protecting the institution’s identity, giving the leaders more freedom, and overcoming cultural bias.  By collecting and processing more data, institutions can use these data to design more engaging and inspiring programs and student experiences

Improving Data Collection, Analysis and Access Key to Supporting Student Success

Melissa Irvin, from the University of South Florida, explains that data collection and analysis are important for supporting student success, especially at universities that have limited resources.

Institution’s Use of Data and Analytics for Student Success

The whitepaper describes how the collaboration among institutional research, information technology, and student services plays an important role in data-informed strategies.  In particular, the paper discusses the myriad of challenges and opportunities that come from this collaboration.

Learning Analytics: Coming Out from Behind the Curtains

The newest trend in the last couple of years has been for students to achieve success in learning analytics.  Data analysis is helping students to pass their majors by letting them know beforehand about their future courses. Few issues have emerged, however, regarding collecting and storing students’ data.  Learning analytics has helped to develop an agenda for the proper utilization of data and technology at colleges and universities.

Metrics that Matter

In postsecondary institutions, metrics like selectivity and the number of applications are often misleading.  For example, Meredith Twombly at Hampshire College believes the application numbers don’t show the whole picture.  It doesn’t detail the reasons for the increase or decrease of applications, as she points out, Hampshire College has added two new essays to its application which has decreased the numbers, but it has increased the self-selection. Furthermore, selectivity is a highly regarded metric because it indicates whether an application is accepted to a highly selective college, but sometimes, as Twombly argues, the institution can control the space and the ability to “shape” the incoming group of students which manipulates those numbers.  She believes that the most telling metric is yield because it shows the importance of the admission process.

More Data on Non-Traditional Students is Needed, but We’re on the Right Track

The US Department of Education’s National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has generally been using measures that mainly track traditional students which leaves out many non-traditional students.  Recently, however, the NCES will report more in-depth information such as part-time, first-time and non-first-time undergraduates who started in the fall.  Furthermore, the data will also include information on tuition, finances, courses, and employment.  Although the NCES is striving towards becoming more inclusive and detailed in its reports, measures such as students who do not begin enrollment in the Fall are still absent from the data.

New Tool for Open-Access Research

Lindsay McKenzie a brief explanation for getting the Research, an open resource with over 20 million scholarly articles.

Private Colleges Give Ground on Student Data

The National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities (NAICU) supports the Student Right to Know Before You Go Act which expands some student data to be collected by the federal government.  Public universities prefer the College Transparency Act (which is more inclusive than the SRKBYG Act), which allows collecting individual student-level data for outcomes because it provides a more comprehensive student data; however, the NAICU asserts that it infringes on student privacy.  Although private colleges do no completely support the CTA, they are gradually shifting towards expanding collecting student data.

Project Launched to Improve Web Archiving Worldwide

Virginia Tech University received a $248,450 grant from The Institute of Museum and Library Services to transform its internet search tools and expand the access for archiving the web.

Push for Unit Records Revived

On Capitol Hill, there is a debate on whether the federal government should be collecting student data.  Public universities and a group of Senators want to end the ban on collecting data.  They also want the information to be more inclusive and transparent – giving more information to the public.  On the other side of the debate, the American Civil Liberties Union and the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities (NAICU) are against collecting student-level data citing privacy concerns and the misuse of information.

The Evolution of Analytics: Agile, Actionable, and Accurate

The paper discusses business and analytical software and programs that are valuable for developing and honing data analytical skills.  In particular, the paper thoroughly examines Colibra, MariaDB, and Cloudera – three data-driven programs that are pertinent for success in data analytics.

Visualization and the Three V’s:  Managing and Leveraging Data in Enrollment Management

The three V’s of Big Data – Volume, Variety, and Velocity can hinder enrollment managers in managing and processing data due to the overwhelming amount of data.  According to Christina Trombley of Drake University, with the three V’s, the data must be organized so that they can be easily viewed to be helpful in finding trends.  Trombley asserts that enrollment managers must work with faculty and staff, especially with institutional research, to collect and analyze the student data to identify trends and find solutions.  Furthermore, dashboards are a necessary tool in aiding in decision-making and keeping the information close to the enrollment managers.

Demographics play a key role in the life of a college student.  Whether it is the students’ ethnic background, political ideals, or financial background, demographics influence the students on multiple levels.  The academic resources in this category describe the many roles demographics play in the life of the individual and how it not only affects their academics but also plays a role outside of school.

Does Online Higher Education Reduce Inequality? Exploring the Geography of the Market

NRCCUA and Strada Education network provide a PowerPoint presentation illustrating the growth of online education programs in the United States.  According to their findings, growth rates are depended on demographics and regions.

Education Attainment in the United States 2015

This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected from the Current Population Survey. The report examines educational attainment of the adult population by demographic and social characteristics such as age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and disability status, as well as differences in educational attainment between the native and the foreign-born.

Global Wealth 2018:  Seizing the Analytics Advantage

In its annual report, The Boston Consulting Group reflects on the global market-sizing and wealth manager benchmark and the rise of data and advanced analytics.  In particular, the report focuses on the challenges of wealth managers of sustaining a top-line margin by and their myriads of analytical tools.

Most Americans say Higher Ed is Heading in Wrong Direction, but Partisans Disagree on Why

According to a study conducted by the Pew Research Center, most young American adults have negative views of higher education. Among Democrats, their negative views are based on high tuition costs whereas the negative views of higher education for Republicans stem from professors bringing their own social and political views to the class.

Piketty’s Inequality Story in Six Charts

John Cassidy explains six charts developed by French economist Thomas Piketty that pertain to wealth and income distribution.

San Diego Universities Brace for Hyper-Connected Generation Z

Universities located in San Diego are preparing for the first wave of students from Generation Z.  The students from Generation Z have been molded by smartphones, the Internet and social media – which might change the manner in which these universities market their schools to these students.

The Higher Education Landscape is Changing Fast

The UNESCO Institute for Statistics indicates that more people in the world are attending higher education institutions.  The numbers are increasing at various rates, but Asia is forecasted to have the highest volume of college enrollments by 2040.

Want a More Innovative Company? Simple: Hire a More Diverse Workforce

The articles discuss a study that shows more diverse companies tend to be more innovative.  The article provides a brief summary of the study and explains the reasons why diverse companies lead to more innovation.

This section provides external sources from the internet that Westcliff University finds informative and easy to grasp.  Each link transports the user to a website that provides a database on different topics such as academia, government, and business.  The given information on these websites ranges from blogs and articles to Podcasts and datasets.

100 Companies that Matter in Knowledge Management

KMWorld provides a list of 100 companies that demonstrate functionality, success, and creativity and innovation in knowledge management.  KMWorld provides a website link with a terse description for each company.


Developed by Deloitte and Datawheel, Data USA puts extensive public data on a single platform.  It provides crucial information on business, education and economic sectors that can be used by students, executives and others for their own analytical purposes.  Stories about places and industries are also provided by the platform to give a human side of the data.

Ed Data – Education Data Partnership

Ed Data – Education Data Partnership provides an open source for local, state, and federal school data.

Get the Research

An open data source that provides 20 million free scholarly papers.

Innovative Educators

Innovative Educators is a free resource that provides links to school-based articles on such topics as (1) Campus Safety & Security; (2) Student Success; (3) Institutional Effectiveness; (4) Student Populations; (5) Teaching & Learning; and (6) Technology & Online Learning.

Player FM – Higher Education Podcasts

The link is from Player FM, a source for higher education podcasts.

The Edvocate – Diversity Articles and Blogs

The link provides articles and blogs from the Edvocate on the topic of diversity.

The Edvocate – Top Education Blogs

The Edvocate is an organization that wants to see a radical change in the current education system by giving education-based policy information to the public.  The Edvocate provides a list of the best education blogs.

Financial planning and funds are critical for any postsecondary institution.  Finances play an important role in the development of not only the institution but also the students’ academic careers.  The provided information in this section gives the readers a source of information that deals with the topic of finances in higher education for both the students and colleges.

Evaluating State Funding Effort for Higher Education

The key findings from the Midwestern Higher Education Compact policy brief include: (1) State appropriations matter; (2) State funding has declined for higher education; and (3) Political factors and budget play significant roles for higher education support.

Financial Fix

The paper discusses the important roles and tasks performed by leading chief financial and chief business officers.  For financial leaders, five features that are shared among financial functions are: (1) an expanded leadership role; (2) the right team; (3) integrated, data-informed planning; (4) embedded accountability; and (5) seamless execution through education and communication.

Financial Outlook: 2018 Report for Higher Education

Kaufman Hall surveyed senior financial professionals of colleges and universities on the current environment, tools and plans, and financial state of their institutions. Based on the findings, Kaufman Hall finds that (1) a majority of the participants believe more data would lead to better financial decisions; (2) colleges and universities are behind other industries in financial planning and tools; and (3) other various findings.

Improving Your Budgeting Cycle:  Introducing Efficiencies into Your Process

Colleges and universities must budget their finances during the financial and analysis processes.  Kaufman Hall discovers that to reduce budget cycle time, institutions can (1) consolidate data; (2) automate processes; (3) optimize resources, and (4) incorporate baseline.

Keeping Online Courses Fresh: Valuable, but Costly

The online course platform is an on-going process that requires updates and improvements.  Due to the frequent changes in technology, courses, and deficiencies, the cost of maintaining these online courses rise at a high rate.

Pell Grants

The data provided by Public Insight indicate that there was a 3.7% Quarterly decline in Pell Grant disbursements in December 2017.

Private Student Loan Report

MeasureOne provides straightforward private student loan reports detailing performance activities and trends. The data-driven performance reports on key performance and portfolio metrics.

The $1.5 Trillion Student Debt Bubble is About to Pop

Over 40 million Americans owe 1.5 trillion in student debt with women taking on most of that debt.  Instead of the student debt decreasing, the number of student debtors and student loans is increasing at an exponential rate.

The Transfer Maze

A strong transfer system is crucial not just for employers who need educated workers, but also for students seeking a clear and affordable path to earning a bachelor’s degree as their best bet toward reaching the middle class and experiencing upward economic mobility in this economy. California needs to increase degrees among its diverse population. Only 12% of Latinos ages 25 years and older hold bachelor degrees or higher, even though they represent approximately 31% of the state’s 25-years-and-older population. California needs to increase degrees among its diverse population.

The US University Model May Not be Sustainable

The current US university model might not be stable due to the decline of high school graduates and the rise in tuition – making it difficult for families to afford college.

Unprepared Graduates are Raising our Costs, Say Employers

In Kenya, college graduates are causing a financial burden on businesses because many of those students are unprepared for the corporate world after graduation.  Due to the problem, the government is implementing new policies that would make institutions defend their staff and programs and focus on technical and vocational education.

Academic articles and journals pertaining to student and postsecondary global movements and shifts are in this section.  Global trends are influenced by different factors and actors on many levels (e.g., global, national, and individual levels). The interconnectivity of the multiple levels in the global arena impacts the students in either a positive or negative manner.

Can We Measure Education Quality in Global Rankings?

Organizations that conduct global university rankings such as Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) and Times Higher Education (THE) are in the process of measuring teaching-learning as part of their ranking criteria.

Lies, Damned Lies and Rankings

Moshe Porat, Dean of the business school at Temple University, was asked to resign from his post due to having a hand in falsifying data of its online M.B.A. program for rankings purposes.  This particular case (and others) raises the growing issue of higher learning institutions focusing on rankings.

Redden, Elizabeth, Rapid Growth in Foreign Student Work Program Higher Education

There is a rise in international students attending American colleges studying STEM and participating in OPT.  The popularity of STEM, as indicated by Elizabeth Redden, stems from giving foreign students the chance to work for three years after graduation in OPT; however, some have argued that these students have an unfair advantage over domestic students because F-1 students and their employers do not pay Medicare and Social Security taxes.  According to Pew Research, Center majority of these STEM F-1 students come from Asia, in particular, China and India.

Report:  Saudi Scholarship Programme to Sharpen Focus on Top Universities

The Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah Scholarship Programme (KASP) has helped send thousands of Saudi students to study abroad since its inception in 2005.  Due to the US$100 billion deficit in 2015 and other factors, the Saudi government has been cutting its spending and making its scholarship more restrictive to become eligible – only funding those who are going to the top schools in the world are eligible for funding.

Saudi Arabia’s Expanding Higher Education Capacity

Due to increasing Saudi Arabia’s college-aged population and demand for labor, Saudi Arabia requires more available spots at the universities.  To help solve the increasing demands for labor and higher education, Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman has developed the Vision 2030 strategy that would increase funding for innovation, research, and development.

Shift Tides: Understanding International Student Yield for Fall 2017

International students contribute greatly to their host campuses across the nation, academically as well as financially. Some institutions may be feeling the pinch as they try to diversify their international student population while others see no change in enthusiasm among incoming students. A number of survey respondents indicated they were bracing for a large drop that never came and feels optimistic, while some institutions are discouraged by fewer deposits and more students withdrawing their applications before a decision is even reached.

Students of Tomorrow: Global Trends Driving Demand for Education

With populations aging, the pool of potential students is dwindling. Despite this, enrolment in tertiary education is rising, a trend regarded by many as crucial for a competitive global jobs market. Rising parental incomes, growth in demand for overseas courses and an increase in adult learning are all helping to drive global demand.

The Emerging Middle Class in Developing Countries

The world economy is trending towards Asia having more middle class in proportion to the global population.  Homi Kharas defines the global middle class as “those households with daily expenditures between USD10 and USD100 per person in purchasing power parity terms”.  The middle class in Asia will almost double from 2010 to 2020.  In particular, the middle class in China and India have increased in part due to high population, technology, investment, and trade.

Universities and Our Digital Future in a Divided World

The Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU) conference will be held in Taipei, Taiwan on June 24-26.  The participants at the conference will discuss geopolitical changes (e.g., multinationalism) and the balance of power in research.

Universities Look South to Recruit International Students

US colleges and universities have seen a drop in international student enrollment mainly due to growing competition with other countries – some international universities offer free tuition or non-international student fees.  To improve the number of international students, like those from Latin America and the Caribbean, many US institutions plan to develop partnerships with international universities, increase social media engagement, and/or upgrading marketing technology.

US ELT Numbers Continue Downward Trend

There has been a drop in student enrollment in Intensive English Programs (IEPs) in the United States. According to the data, the decrease of government-sponsored students from Saudi Arabia and Brazil is one of the root causes for the drop.  The US IEPs assert that the reduction of a student in IEPs is caused by international competition, affordability and safety concerns.

World in Data: Global Rise in Education

In today’s times, education is accepted to be a widely fundamental resource in the society. Across the world, there has been a great expansion of educational resources in the last 2 centuries. This stands true both quantitatively and qualitatively. When we look at Global Literacy Evolution, literacy distribution across the globe and how fast are we closing cross-country inequality is simply phenomenal. The biggest proof of gap fulfillment lies in the fact that younger generations are progressively better educated than older generations. If Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) reports are to be believed, then income plays a very deep role in Education metrics. Income has a vital impact both on education expenditure as well as academic outcomes.

Many postsecondary institutions are shifting from the traditional educational system towards online-based education.  This gives individuals who are considered non-traditional students an opportunity to attend school and receive an education. Many of the resources in this section come from the Distance Education Accrediting Commision (DEAC) because the commission has been a key factor in the rise of online courses and programs.

Changing Landscape of Online Education (CHLOE) First Survey Report

CHLOE focuses on the management of online education as it becomes a mainstream activity in a growing number of U.S. institutions. Many institutions now address online education in their strategic plans, stressing a range of objectives, such as enrollment growth, student completion, and quality enhancement. The budgeting process, however, favors investments with enrollment growth potential. Although online enrollment is still a growth engine in U.S. higher education, the rate of increase is slowing and competition is increasing, as evidenced by plans to substantially expand the number of online programs at a majority of the institutions surveyed.

Changing Landscape of Online Education (CHLOE) Second Survey Report

The Changing Landscape of Online Education (CHLOE) is an ongoing effort to survey chief online officers at U.S. colleges and universities about online learning policies, practices, and plans. CHLOE is a joint initiative of Quality Matters and adventures. Very few institutions see blended learning as a core strategy. This would appear to counter both strong interests among prospective students in blended learning and the conclusion of many studies that a blended approach, rather than fully online or fully campus-based models are more effective.

Competency Based Education Basics: Vital Steps to Consider Before You Jump In Erika Yigzaw

Erika Yigzaw describes Competency-Based Education (CBE) in detail and discusses the benefits of using technology in aiding students.  Technology leads to more sharing and collaboration among students and institutions to further student success. For example, student benefits from technology by having personalized learning, higher earnings, and more personal satisfaction.  Others, including the education sector, business sector, and the country can also benefit from the students learning through these CBE.

Employability Qualities Certification DEAC

The Quality Assurance Commons partnered with Ashworth College in answering the question: “How can we address the serious gaps between higher education and employers?”  Their solution is offering the Essential Employability Qualities Certification (EEQ CERT).  The resource describes the pilot and design process and criteria for certification.  Ashworth College then highlights its successful outcomes in the EEQ CERT Pilot and other programs while being accredited by DEAC.  There are challenges including learning outcomes and course content but an improvement to these issues are being made.

F1 Visa and Enrollment Data (May 2018)

Westcliff University provides empirical data on enrollment trends of F-1 Visa students in Postsecondary Institutions.  The data compares F-1 students with academic levels, enrollment by institutional type, and field.  In particular, the research discusses the increase of F-1 Visa holders in STEM programs in 2016 and 2017, especially those from Asia.

General Data Protective Regulation (GDPR) DEAC

Stan Hess provides a brief explanation of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and how it applies to those that are affected by the policy.  He also breaks down the policy and the personally identifiable information that EU citizens can access.  He believes that those institutions or companies that are affected by the policy should prepare themselves with consent, data breaches, roles and responsibilities, jurisdiction, rights, etc.

Giants MOOCs Succeeding in Enrollment, ROI

There is an increase of institutions and organizations developing and producing massive open online courses (MOOCs), where profits are split among those involved.  Studies on MOOCs have shown that a majority of students in these courses are satisfied.

Guided Pathways DEA

Guided pathways are an alternative approach to the traditional way higher education is taught for non-traditional students.  Guided Pathways explain that students need access and guidance in higher education to become successful students.  The four pillars of guided pathways (Clarify Paths, Enter a Path, Stay on a Path, and Ensure Learning) provide a non-traditional system to help more groups of students, especially non-traditional students, to succeed.  Although guided pathways are beneficial, it is not a one-size-fits-all system that is easy and quick.

Open Education Resources DEAC

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WCET) explained the high cost of higher education and how some students are unable to afford important college materials such as textbooks.  One solution to alleviate the financial burden of students is to have open education resources which provide free learning materials and open textbooks.  It also provides a short list of OER that includes sources from universities and organizations.

Opening New Instructional Sites: Four Best Practices to Support Success

According to the article, three proven approaches that make satellite campuses succeed are (1) Agreements with local colleges; (2) Corporate partnerships; and (3) Community relations.

The Science of Digital Growth: Exploring Best Practices in Online Programming and Innovation

Satellite campuses are important for non-traditional students because traditional educational models are not always an option for them.  To launch successful online programs, according to the article, senior leaders must invest in the programs and the data must be centralized and combined to allow for success.

Translating Non-collegiate Learning and Workplace Training into College Credit Recommendations DEAC

According to The National College Credit Recommendation Service (NCCRS), there is a wave of adult learners attending college at a later age.  The NCCRS provides online courses, which are accredited by the DEAC, and provides credit recommendations.  Furthermore, the presentation elaborates on the process and evaluation eligibility such as organization and learning experience eligibility.

The STEM/Technology category provides crucial information regarding technology in higher education. Technology plays a very important role in both students and postsecondary institutions.  Many individuals learn the intricacies of technology at colleges and universities — Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs provide students the knowledge required for the business sector.  

8 Analytics Trends to Watch in 2018 for the Intelligent Enterprise

Without innovation and a data-driven culture, businesses lose profits and fall behind their competitors. In the report, Microstrategy provides eight trends in an intelligent enterprise that will shape and transform analytics to help companies become more innovative and data-driven.

Abiy’s Fellows – A New Frontier to Advance Excellence

Ethiopian Prime Minister Dr. Abiy Ahmed is developing the Gold Medals Scholarship which allows Ethiopian students to advance in their education.  Fully funded by the government, the scholarship hopes to prepare the next generation of Ethiopian leaders.

A Generation Grows Up in China without Google, Facebook or Twitter

Many internet websites and social media platforms such as Facebook and Google are either banned or censored by the Chinese government.  Although these mediums are heavily censored, studies have shown that a large portion of the Chinese population are indifferent about the censorship or is optimistic about the future of China.

Are Graduates Ready for Artificial Intelligence?

With the increase of start-ups concentrating on artificial intelligence, universities should focus on skills pertaining to AI.  Although AI has its benefits (e.g., increase production, economic growth, etc.), challenges still arise from the technology, such as the fear of job loss and the difficulty of prevention.

Bridging the Gap between Education and Occupation

College and university leaders are responding to the problem of the widening gap between the skills required for success in the modern workforce and those their graduates possess. Business leaders struggling to fill their ranks, students increasingly considering returns on their investments in education, and public policy makers including the U.S. Department of Education are all looking to higher education institutions to align degree programs with the needs of the American labor market.  There are several initiatives being taken by two and four-year schools to support modern student’s career readiness.

Dice Tech Salary Survey, 2018

The Dice salary survey used several methodologies to get a response a) via an email invitation to Dice’s registered database members, b) through a notification on the home page and/or via site intercept invitations within the site to visitors, and c) via banner ads on external sites. The survey clears the air about several interesting topics like the average pay of professionals in 2017 vs. 2016. It also helps one understand different traits that can help get promotion in the corporate world.

E-Content Sourcebook: A Guide to Content and the Digital Experience

E-Content provides an informative journal on the use of innovative technology in business and other sectors.  In this particular issue, E-Content discusses such topics as big data and analytics, social media, artificial intelligence, mobile technology, and digital marketing.

How Colleges Keep Up with the Changing Social Media Landscape

According to the Pew Research, among social media platforms (e.g., Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, and Snapchat), Snapchat is the most widely used social media platform among teens.  Furthermore, Facebook has seen a 20 percent decline in usage whereas Instagram has seen a 20 percent usage growth.  Based on the studies conducted by Eduventures and E-Expectations, YouTube is considered the “best channel” and most widely used social media platform for college research.

International STEM Students Are Up for Grabs

International students will soon comprise half of U.S. science, technology, engineering, and mathematics Ph.D. graduates by 2020. The proportion of international PhD-level students on temporary visas to study STEM subjects in the United States has doubled over the past thirty years. The United States stands to lose its significant investment in these highly qualified students and their potential contributions to U.S. entrepreneurship and innovation if they have to return to their home countries after completing their degrees or post-doctoral work.

International Students and STEM OPT, NFAP

There may be the elimination of STEM OPT, the primary way the United States allows F-1 international students in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields to work in America after graduation. Dollars always follow the talent, Tech Company CEO’s have long stated. That means companies will increase the resources spent outside the United States since that is where many prized recruits would be located. Since the vast majority of graduate students at U.S. universities in key technology fields are international students, such actions could have a significant negative impact on the U.S. economy, innovation and U.S. workers.

Metaari’s Analysis of the 2017 Global Learning Technology Investment Patterns

Metaari, an ethic based quantitative market research firm identifies revenue opportunities for technology suppliers by tracking market in 122 countries. The research is based on products that utilize psychometric, game mechanics, robotics, cognitive computing, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, and augmented reality. The whitepaper involves three legacy learning technology products and seven advanced learning technology product types. A detailed analysis shows how investors between 2015 & 2017 started shifting their interest away from legacy products like Self-paced e-Learning to next-generation technologies like Cognitive Learning, AI-based Learning, Mixed Reality Learning, 5G Mobile Learning, Game-based Learning and even Educational Robots.

SEVIS by the Numbers – International Student Trends

SEVIS by the Numbers is a biannual report that highlights key SEVIS data to illustrate trends, values, and information on international students studying in the United States. SEVP oversees F-1 and M-1 students and their dependents, as well as the schools that enroll them, for compliance with U.S. laws and regulations governing international students studying in the United States. Most F-1 and M-1 students come to the United States to take part in the higher education system. Seventy-six percent of all F-1 and M-1 students enroll in bachelors, masters or doctoral programs certified by SEVP.

The Geography of Foreign Students in U.S. Higher Ed. Origins and Destinations

Colombia, Poland, and Malaysia all possess great potential for sustainable long-term growth in the coming decades according to our country experts. At the same time, recent experience has re-emphasized that relatively rapid growth is not guaranteed for emerging economies, as indicated by recent problems in Russia and Brazil, for example. It requires sustained and effective investment in infrastructure and improving political, economic, legal and social institutions. It also requires remaining open to the free flow of technology, ideas and talented people that are key drivers of economic catch-up growth.

The Importance of International Students to American and Engineering

The increase in both the size and number of graduate programs in science and engineering at U.S. universities indicates U.S. student enrollment has not been held down by the lack of available slots at U.S. graduate schools. Without the ability to perform high-level research at U.S. universities, many talented individuals would not take or seek faculty positions, leaving U.S. schools far weaker and unable to educate U.S. students in important fields. Graduate students also directly support the educational mission for undergraduates by serving as teaching assistants. Their duties include conducting study sessions and grading, which takes some of the burdens off the faculty to focus on teaching.

The State of Cybersecurity Talent

Cyberbit provides a PowerPoint presentation discussing the booming demand for cybersecurity jobs.  Furthermore, the presentation describes the skills required for those positions and the shortage in people with those skills.

The World in 2050. Will the Shift in Global Economic Power Continue?

Maintaining a welcoming policy on international students is essential to preserving America’s role as a center of innovation. A welcoming policy means reasonable visa policies and making it easier for international students to work after graduation, including policies that preserve STEM OPT and improved policies on H-1B visas, per country limits and employment-based green cards. The global competition for international students and talented science and engineers is fierce. The numbers show U.S. policymakers would be wise to welcome international students to America.

Student and Institutional Effectiveness discuss the procedures needed to produce successful institutions and students.  A general theme among the works in this section is the development and importance of the Institutional Research Department and the influence it has throughout the rest of the school.  Furthermore, many of these works discuss how cultural innovation is needed to produce a successful institution.

A New Vision for Institutional Research

The Statement of Aspirational Practice for Institutional Research recommends for a model that echoes the observable data-driven decision-making process at higher learning institutions.  The model should emphasize student data which are based on a student-focused perspective.

Assessing and Overcoming the 21st Century Challenges of the Modern-Day Conservatory

Due to the financial struggles of the Mount Royal University Conservatory (Calgary, Alberta) in the past eight years, the leadership has created a strategic plan to increase profits.  The conservatory developed a strategic plan that includes eight pillars: (1) sustainability; (2) Artistic and Pedagogical Excellence; (3) Inclusiveness; (4) Community Profile; (5) Internationalization; (6) Communication; (7) Credential Approval; and (8) Alumni Engagement.

Breaking Out of the Status Quo: Creating a Culture of Innovation in Higher Ed

Colleges and Universities must build a culture of creativity and entrepreneurial efforts to be sustainable for the future.  To succeed, leaders must acknowledge what they’re expressing, modeling and reinforcing.

Career Planning Tools

Student Connections conducted a survey of 1,176 college graduates about their time in college and their preparation for their career.  The study has found that internships and mentorships are the best tools for helping students for a successful post-graduate career.

Creating and Maintaining an Innovative Culture Through Continuing Education

More non-traditional students are enrolling in colleges and universities. The culture at postsecondary institutions must be innovative to satisfy not only traditional students but also the non-traditional ones.

Critical Lessons Higher Ed Innovators Can Learn from Entrepreneurs

To become successful, leaders at colleges and universities can learn from entrepreneurs by being creative and innovative.  Characteristics that entrepreneurs encompass are: (1) Entrepreneurial; (2) Truth-seeker; (3) Customer-centric; (4) Efficient; and (5) World Class.

Defining Institutional Research: Findings from a National Study of IR Work Tasks – A Focus on Senior IR/IE Leaders

Association for Institutional Research (AIR) assesses its findings on the type of roles and to which degree the Institutional Research/Information Extraction members perform at their institutions.

From Status Quo to Status Go: Scaling Innovation in Higher Ed

To be successful, leaders at postsecondary institutions must support their staff and faculty, both financially and emotionally.  In particular, leaders must not deter their staff and faculty from being creative and innovative.

Innovation for Tomorrow, Today

Innovation can help businesses deal with problems in the near future. The article highlights three keys to be more innovate: 1) as how creativity and innovation work 2) how sometimes failure can be important to succeed and 3) when to resign and leave.

Innovation Perseverance: Launching Innovative Ideas into the Main Campus Culture

To have an innovative culture that leads to institutional success, postsecondary institutions must have innovative senior leaders, innovative centers, visible and dedicated support.

Institutional Research Capacity: Foundations of Federal Data Quality

This whitepaper by the Association for Institutional Research (AIR) gives recommendations to the Institutional Research Departments for improving their data approaches.  AIR also requests for institutional research data and strategies be aligned with federal and state agencies.

Managing Innovation in Higher Education: Outlining a Few Best Practices

Colleges must be innovative to become successful.  Higher learning institutions can take these steps to help the process: 1. Clarify the Goals and Gaps 2. Build the Strategy 3. Implement a Portfolio Approach.

Overcoming Siloes to Use Data More Strategically

Universities can leverage big student data for predictive analytical purposes to help their students and institutions. Data must be integrated throughout different departments instead of creating siloes to appropriately use the data.

Prerequisites for Launching Competency-Based and Other Innovative Program Models

According to the authors, five essential attributions for postsecondary institutions to be successfully innovative are: (1) Leadership Commitment; (2) Shift in Culture; (3) Faculty-Driven Development and Facilitation (4) Longitudinal Focus; and (5) Student-Centricity.

Putting the Pieces in Place: Launching a Competency-Based Program

For universities to be successful, they must have creative and innovative programs.  Five essential characteristics that make institutions more creative and innovative are: (1) A solid foundation of success (2); A culture of origination; (3) Senior leadership commitment; (4) Flexibility and openness and; (5) Evidence-based approach.

Relevancy: Innovate, Evolve or Perish

The article discusses that a university must provide students with all the essential educational materials and resources during their time at school for them to succeed in the corporate world once they graduate.

Statement of Aspirational Practice for Institutional Research

Developed by the Association for Institutional Research (AIR), the whitepaper discusses the future roles and decision-making of Institutional Research leaders and members.

Strategies to Foster an Innovative Culture

The enrollment at Anderson University has doubled since 2002 due to its commitment to its digital learning initiative — which focuses on giving devices (e.g., IPad) to students.  To be successful, senior leadership administrations must support student success and technological innovation.

The State of Innovation in Higher Education: A Survey of Academic Administrators (April 2018)

Innovation is key for a postsecondary institution to succeed.  A study was conducted on higher education and innovation by Andrew J. Magda and Jull Buban, Ph.D., and they had several conclusions: (1) colleges and universities do not have universally accepted definition for innovation; (2) innovation is a tool used to solve problems; (3) it is important to have a top-down leadership and administrative balance; and (4) success hinges on collaboration, structural issues, and cultural factors.   

Three Keys to Fostering an Innovative Culture on Your Campus

For institutional leaders to cultivate an innovative culture at their institutions, they must have a (1) Focused mission; (2) Easily conveyed mission; and (3) Permit “safe space” and experimentation.

These additional resources are provided by WASC Senior College and University Commission (WSCUC). These resources cover a wide range of topics regarding post-secondary institutions that can be found on the internet.  

Case Studies

Georgia State University (Predictive Analytics):

Loma Linda University (Visualization):

New York Times article:

Rio Salado Community College (Learning Analytics):

University of Hawaii – West Oahu (Factbook with data visualization):

University of Nevada at Reno (Predictive Analytics):

University of Texas at Austin (Predictive Analytics) Campus link:

Web Pages & Videos

Analytics Resources (Educause):

Annotated Bibliography – Learning Analytics in HE:

Beyond Retention: Using Targeted Analytics to Improve Student Success (2012). Educause. targeted-analytics-to-improve-student-success

Blending Human Intelligence and Analytics for Student Success (Educause):

CollegeNET. 2017 Social Mobility Index: Opportunity through US Higher Education.

Driving Toward Greater Postsecondary Attainment Using Data: A Tactical Guidebook (Published by Institute of Higher Education Policy – IHEP):

“Use this guidebook to learn more about different data tools that communities use to support students and improve educational outcomes and how you could potentially adopt these tools in your own communities.”

Effective Learning Analytics: Using data and analytics to support students (Jisc) [website]:

Integrated Planning and Advising (Educause):

International Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference (2011 conference):

Journal of Learning Analytics [open access journal]:

Learning Analytics Community Exchange [YouTube channel]:

Open Learning Analytics: Erik Duval at TEDxUHowest [TEDx Talk]:

Society for Learning Analytics Research (SoLAR) [website]:

Student Experience Traffic Lighting – Engagement Analytics [You Tube video]:

Articles, Books & Presentations

American Council on Education (ACE). (2018). Minority Serving Institutions as Engines of Upward Mobility. Washington DC. room/Documents/MSIs-as-Engines-of-Upward-Mobility.pdf

Astin, A. W. & Antonio, A. L. (2012). Assessment for Excellence: The Philosophy and Practice of Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education (2nd Ed.). New York: Rowman & Littlefield. [book, $50-$60]

Banta, T., Pike, G. R., & Hansen, M. J. (2009). The use of engagement data in accreditation/planning & assessment. In G. M. Gonyea & G. D. Kuh (Eds.), Using NSSE in Institutional Research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Blaich, C.F. & Wise, K.S. (2011, January). From gathering to using assessment results: Lessons from the Wabash National Study (NILOA Occasional Paper No.8). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois and Indiana University, National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment. [report]

Gagliardi, J., Parnell, A., & Carpenter-Hubin, J. (2018). The Analytics Revolution in Higher Education. Stylus Publishing, LLC.

Herzog, S. & Stanley, J. (2016). A step-by-step introduction to building a student-at-risk prediction model. Presented at the AIR Forum, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Howson, C., Clougherty James, L., Idoine, C., & Beyer, M. (2018). How to Use Data for Good to Impact Society. Gartner Research.

Itzkowitz, Michael. (2018). “Want More Students to Pay Down Their Loans? Help Them Graduate.” Third Way Report, August 8, 2018.

Larusson, Johann Ari, & White, Brandon (Eds.) (2014). Learning Analytics: From Research to Practice. New York: Springer. [book, $149-$189]

Mayer-Schönberger, V., & Cukier, K. (2014). Learning with Big Data: The Future of Education. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. [e-book 60 pages, $2.99]

McMurtrie, Beth. “Georgia State U. Made Its Graduation Rate Jump. How?” The Chronicle of Higher Education, May 25, 2018.

NASFAA. (June 2017). Financial Aid Data Sharing.

Nelson, K. (2016). Creating and publishing interactive dashboards with Excel Power Pivot, Power BI, and Sharepoint Online. Presented at the CAIR Conference, Los Angeles, California.

Posey, J., & Pitter, G. W. (2012). Integrating the functions of institutional research, institutional effectiveness, and information management. AIR Professional File, 126.

Sclater, N., Peasgood, A., & Mullan, J. (2016, April). Learning analytics in higher education: A review of UK and international practice. [report]

Siegel, Eric. “Disarming ‘Weapons of Math Destruction’’, Analytics: Driving Better Business Decisions, n.d.

Siemens, G. (2013). Learning analytics: The emergence of a discipline. American Behavioral Scientist, 57, p. 1380-1400.

Terkla, D. G., et al. (2012). Institutional Dashboards: Navigational Tool for Colleges and Universities, AIR Professional File, 123.

Wermund, Benjamin. “How U.S. News college rankings promote economic inequality on campus.” Politico, Sept. 13, 2017.

Worthen, Molly. “The Misguided Drive to Measure ‘Learning Outcomes’”, The New York Times, Feb. 23, 2018.

Ethical Practice

Code of practice for learning analytics: Setting out the responsibilities of educational institutions to ensure that learning analytics is carried out responsibly, appropriately and effectively. (2015, June).

Code of practice for learning analytics: A literature review of the ethical and legal issues. (2014,

Cormack, A. N. (2016). A data protection framework for learning analytics. Journal of Learning Analytics, 3(1), 91-106.

Drachsler, H. & Greller, W. (2016, April). Privacy and analytics: it’s a DELICATE issue a checklist for trusted learning analytics. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge. Edinburgh, UK.

Federal Trade Commission. (2016, January). Big data: A tool for inclusion or exclusion? Understanding the issues. Washington, DC. Report:

Press release:

O’Neil, C. (2016). Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequity and Threatens Democracy. New York: Random House.

Warner, J. (2016, July). The dangers of predictions in education. Inside Higher Education. predictions-education

Willis, J., Campbell, J., & Pistilli, M. (2013). Ethics, big data, and analytics: A model for application. Educause Review.

Interesting Apps

BigML. Free version for education and small data sets. Brings machine learning to everyone to uncover the hidden predictive power of data with ease. Upload raw data sets.

Power BI. Free version. Import summarized data and generate various visualizations. Option: install the Power BI publisher for Excel add-in.

National News—Tales that Encourage Caution or Inspire

5 Reasons Why University Rankings Are Not Perfect. (2018) StudyPortalsMasters. rankings-are-notperfect.html

8 ways big data and analytics will change sports. (2014) CIO.

Academic ‘Moneyball.’ (2016). Inside Higher Education.

Baker, G., Jankowski, N., Provezis, S., & Kinzie, J. (2012). Using Assessment Results: Promising Practices of Institutions that Do It Well. Retrieved from

Big data 101: Colleges are hoping predictive analytics can fix their dismal graduation rates. (2014). Vox. hoping-predictive-analytics-can-fix-their-graduation-rates

Case studies highlight the use of student-level postsecondary data (2017). eAIR Newsletter, 37(4). Data.aspx

How predictive modeling benefits enrollment managers. (2013). Noel Levitz.

How UPS uses analytics to drive down costs (and no, it doesn’t call it big data). (2014). Network World.

Logging off, dropping out. (2016) Inside Higher Education. predicting-retention

Overall outcomes of university rankings are ‘junk’. (2017) University World News.

Pinterest Accidentally Congratulates Single Women on Getting Married. (2014). New York Magazine.

The problem with the 2018 U.S. News rankings: Junk in, junk out. (2017) The Washington Post.

When algorithms discriminate. (2015). The New York Times.

Who gets to graduate? (2014). The New York Times.

Will you graduate? Ask big data. (2017). The New York Times.

Borrowed from WASC Senior College and University Commission (WSCUC), the bibliography of resources is a list of informative citations and resources in regards to institutional assessments.

“The Essential Learning Outcomes.” Association of American Colleges and Universities. Can be accessed electronically through:
This is a list of five overarching learning outcomes that should characterize all post-secondary educational programs. It was developed as a part of the Learning

Hampson, Keith, “Dr. Mike Offerman, Capella University: Quality, Access and Transparency in Higher Education.” Interview published in Higher Education Management, Nov. 11, 2009

Integrity in the College Curriculum. Washington: Association of American Colleges, 1985

Lumina Foundation. The Degree Qualification Profile. Lumina Foundation for Education, Inc., Indianapolis, 2011
Can be accessed electronically through:

Miller, Margaret, “The Meaning of the Baccalaureate.” About Campus. September-October 2003

This is the link to the electronic copy of Margaret Miller’s original paper that was published by The American College Personnel Association (ACPA) in their bimonthly ABOUT CAMPUS magazine.

Miller, Margaret & Ewell, Peter, “Measuring Up on College-Level Learning.” The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, October, 2005 May be accessed at:

“The Quality and Integrity of Undergraduate Degrees.” Southern Association of Schools & Colleges, Commission on Colleges. December, 2011.
In response to the rapid increase in the number of non-traditional courses and programs available through accredited colleges and universities, the Southern Association of Schools & Colleges has issued this policy that requires institutions to explicitly indicate whether specific courses and programs are “intended for transfer.”

Taking Responsibility for the Quality of the Baccalaureate Degree. Washington: Association of American Colleges and Universities, 2004

Online Resources

Assessment Commons: [meta-site of online assessment resources]

ASSESS listserv: [2000+ people on this listserv]

DQP Assignment Library:

National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment (NILOA):

WSCUC Document Library:

Campus Websites

California State University, Fullerton:


James Madison University assessment:

University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa assessment:

Classroom Assessment

Angelo, T., & Cross. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A Handbook for college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Creative Disciplines Assessment

Chase, D., Ferguson, J.L., & Hoey, J.J. IV. (2014). Assessment in creative disciplines: Quantifying and qualifying the aesthetic. Champaign, IL: Common Ground Publishing.

Discussion of Published or Commercial Measurement Tools

Benjamin, R., et al. (2009). Returning to learning in an age of assessment: Introducing the rationale of the Collegiate Learning Assessment. Council for Aid to Education. Available at

Bean, J. C. (2011). Engaging ideas: The professor’s guide to integrating writing, critical thinking, and active learning in the classroom, 2nd Ed., San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Benjamin, R. (2012). The seven red herrings about standardized assessment in higher education. National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment Occasional Paper #15, September 2012.

Chun, M. (2010). Taking teaching to (performance) task: Linking pedagogy and assessment practices. Change, 42(2), 22-29.

Hawthorne, J. (2008). Accountability & comparability: What’s wrong with the VSA approach? Liberal Education, 94(2). Available at

Kuh, G. (2009). The National Survey of Student Engagement: Conceptual and empirical foundations. In G. M. Gonyea & G. D. Kuh (Eds.), Using NSSE in Institutional Research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Noel Levitz Surveys:

Faculty Learning Community

Cox & Richlin (2004). Building faculty learning communities. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Hutchings, P., Jankowski, N. A., & Ewell, P. T. (2014). Catalyzing assignment design activity on your campus: Lessons from NILOA’s assignment library initiative. National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment Occasional Paper, November 2014.

Focus Groups and Interviews

Krueger & Casey (2000). Focus groups (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Seidman, I. (2013). Interviewing as qualitative research. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

General Education Assessment

Allen, M. J. (2006). Assessing general education programs. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Leskes, A. & Wright, B. (2005). The art & science of assessing general education outcomes. Washington, DC: Association of American College and Universities.

Richman, W. A., & Ariovich, L. (2013). All-in-one: Combining grading, course, program, and general education outcomes assessment. National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment Occasional Paper # 19, October 2013.

Graduate Program Assessment

Baker, M. J., Carter, M. P., Lerick, D. K., & King, M. F. (2011). Assessment & review of graduate programs. Council of Graduate Schools, Washington, DC.

Lovitts, B. E. & Wert, E. L. (2009). Developing quality dissertations in the humanities, social sciences, and sciences. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Maki, P. & Borkowski, N.A., eds. (2006). The assessment of doctoral education: Emerging criteria and new models for improving outcomes. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Walvoord, B. E. (2004). Assessment clear and simple: A practical guide for institutions departments and general education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

History and Context of Assessment

Astin, A. W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Ewell, P. (2009). Assessment, accountability, and improvement: Revisiting the tension. National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment Occasional Paper # 1, November 2009.

Hutchings, P. (2010). Opening doors to faculty involvement in assessment. National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment Occasional Paper # 4, April 2010.

Sims, S. J., (1992) Student outcomes assessment: A historical review and guide to program development. New York, NY: Greenwood.

Learning Outcomes Assessment—Books, General

Allen, M. J. (2004). Assessing academic programs in higher education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Banta, T. W., & Associates. (2002). Building a scholarship of assessment. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Driscoll, A., & Wood, S. (2007). Outcomes-based assessment for learner-centered education. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Kuh, G. D., Ikenberry, S. O., Jankowski, N. A., Cain T. R., Ewell, P. T., Hutchings, P., & Kinzie, J. (2015). Using evidence of student learning to improve higher education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Maki, P. L. (2010). Assessing for learning: Building a sustainable commitment across the institution, 2nd Ed. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Massa, L. J. & Kasimatis, M. (2017). Meaningful and manageable program assessment: A how-to guide for higher education faculty. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Nichols, J. O. (1996). A practitioner’s handbook for institutional effectiveness and student outcomes assessment implementation. New York, NY: Agathon.

Nichols, J. O., & Nichols, K. W. (2005). A road map for improvement of student learning and support services through assessment. New York, NY: Agathon.

Palomba, C. A.& Banta, T. W. (1999). Assessment essentials: Planning, implementing and improving assessment in higher education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Suskie, L. (2009). Assessing student learning: A common sense guide, 2nd Ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. [3rd edition available February 2018]

Walvoord, B. E. (2010). Assessment clear and simple: A practical guide for institutions, departments, and general education, 2nd Ed., San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


Hubert, D. (2016, summer). Eportfolios, assessment, and general education transformation. Peer Review 18(3), 25- 28.

Light, T. P., Chen, H. L., & Ittleson, J. C. (2012). Documenting learning with Eportfolios, San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass.

Yancey, K. B., (2009). Reflection and electronic portfolios: Inventing the self and re-inventing the university. In D. Cambridge, B. Cambridge, & Yancey, K. B. Electronic Portfolios 2.0. Sterling, VA: Stylus.


AAC&U VALUE Rubrics:

AAC&U VALUE Rubric case studies:

Stevens, D. D., & Levi, A. J. (2012). Introduction to rubrics: An assessment tool to save grading time, convey effective feedback and promote student learning. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

RubriStar (Links to rubrics and a rubrics generator tool): Survey Development

DeVellis, R. F. (2017). Scale development: Theory and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Fowler, Jr., F. J. (2014). Survey research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Use of Results—Teaching and Learning Resources

Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: 7 research-based principles for smart teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Taylor, K., & Marienau, C. (2016). Facilitating learning with the adult brain in mind: A conceptual and practical guide. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Hakel, M. & Halpern, D.F., eds.(2002). Applying the science of learning to university teaching and beyond. New Directions for Teaching and Learning. (No. 89). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Huber, M.T., & Morreale, S.P., eds. (2002). Disciplinary styles in the scholarship of teaching and learning: Exploring common ground. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education.

National Research Council. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. [free to download]

All the citations for the academic works in the resource section are given in this section.  The citations are ordered in alphabetical order.

Abeyta, E. (2018, June 13). Relevancy: Innovate, evolve or perish.  Retrieved from

Adkins, S.S. (2018).  The 2017 global learning technology investment patterns.  Retrieved from Metaari Website:

Altbach, P. G. & Hazelkorn, E. (2018, August 2018). Can we measure education quality in global rankings? Retrieved from University World News website:

American Student Assistance (2017).  Bridging the gap between education and occupation.  Retrieved from American Student Assistance Website:

Anderson, S. (2017). International students and STEM OPT. Retrieved from Nation Foundation for American Policy Website:

Ard, T., Clark, S., & Woodward, D. (2018). Improving your budget cycle: Introducing efficiencies into your process. Retrieved from Kaufman Hall website:

Ashford, K. (2017, November 30). The U.S. university model may not be sustainable, study find. Retrieved from Kaufman Hall website:

Assessment Management Systems.  Retrieved from National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment website:

Association for Institutional Research (2016). Defining institutional research: Findings from a national of study of IR work tasks – A focus on senior IR/IE leaders. Retrieved from

Association for Institutional Research (2016). Statement of aspirational practice for institution research. Retrieved from

Ballard, T. (2018, August 7). Data-planet opens up a universe of statistics to SAGE.  Retrieved from Newsbreak website:

Bedi, P. (2017, March 30). Overcoming siloes to use data more strategically.  Retrieved from

Bombardieri, M. (2018, July 31). A promising model to boost retention for part-time students. Received from the Center for American Progress website:

Booth, M., Winfield, K., & Jax, C. (2018).  The Essential employability qualities certification: A New approach to address employer needs and assure program quality [PowerPoint slides].  Retrieved from

Braverman, L.R. (2017, February 02). Shifting to an active, student-centric model to drive enrollment growth. Retrieved from

Brown, A. (2018, July 26). Most Americans say higher ed is heading in wrong direction, but partisans disagree on why.  Retrieved from Pew Research website:

Calderon, A. (2018, June 22). The higher education landscape is changing fast.  Retrieved from

Cassidy, J. (2014, March 36). Piketty’s inequality story in six charts. Retrieved from The New Yorker website:

Chmura, G. (2017, March 16).  Going wrong with data.  Retrieved from

Cyberbit (2018). The state of cybersecurity talent [PowerPoint slides].  Retrieved from

Deaton, B. & Herron, J. (2018, June 12). Strategies to foster an innovative culture. Retrieved from

Del Casino Jr., V. J. (2018, June 13).  From status quo to status go: Scaling innovation in higher ed.  Retrieved from

Deloitte & Datawheel (2018). Data USA. Retrieved from

Dice (2018). Dice 2018 tech salary report.  Retrieved from Dice Website:

Distance Education Accrediting Commission (2017). DEAC graduation rate benchmarks will remain in effect.  Retrieved from Distance Education Accrediting Commission Website:

Dodge, L. (2018, June 06). Putting the pieces in place: Launching a competency-based program. Retrieved from

Ducoff, N. (2018, June 12). Critical lessons higher ed innovators can learn from entrepreneurs.  Retrieved from

Duff, E. (2017, January 12). Opening new instructional sites: Four best practices to support success.  Retrieved from kenstructional-sites-four-best-practices-to-support-success/

Durham, G. (2018, July 13). How to make big data digestible. Retrieved from

E-Content 2018 sourcebook: A guide to content and the digital experience, 41(1). Retrieved from

Ecolab (2018).  From perception to measured reality: Leverage analytics to improve clinical & economic outcomes.  Retrieved from Ecolab Website:

Ed Data. Retrieved from

Euromonitor International (2018). Students of tomorrow: Global trends driving demand for education.  Retrieved from Euromonitor International Website:

Evelson, B., Goetz, M., Green, T., Lang, T., Menninger, D., Owen, H.,…Wang, R. (2017). 8 analytics trends to watch in 2018 for the intelligent enterprise. Retrieved from Microstrategy website:

Farrugia, C. & Andrejko, N. (2017).  Shifting tides: Understanding international student yield for fall 2017.  Retrieved from Institute of International Education Website:

Fowler, G. (2017, March 21).  Avoiding icebergs on higher ed’s big data seas.  Retrieved from

Garrett, R. (2018, June 15). Does online higher education reduce inequality? Exploring the geography of the market [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from

Get the Research. Retrieved from

Gibson, S. (2018, June 18). Prerequisites for learning competency-based and other innovative program models.  Retrieved from

Haimila, S. (2018, March 8). KMWorld 100 companies that matter in knowledge management 2018. Retrieved from the KMWorld website:

Han, X. & Appelbaum, R.P. (2016).  Will they stay or will they go:  International STEM students are up for grabs.  Retrieved from Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation Website:

Har, J. (2018, August 27). Race-based school criteria roils Asian-American – again. Retrieved from US News website:

Hess, S. (2018).  General data protection regulation (GDPE) [PowerPoint slides].

Horn, M., Crews, T., & Dibble, L. (2018, June 14). Managing Innovation in Higher Education: Outlining a few best practices. Retrieved from

Innovative Educators. Retrieved from

Inside Higher Ed (2018). How colleges are tackling affordability.  Retrieved from

International Consultants for Education and Fairs (2018, June 6).  US ELT numbers continue downward trend.  Retrieved from

Irvin, M. (2018, August 08). Improving data collection, analysis and access key to supporting student success.  Retrieved from the Evolllution website:

Jackson, J. & Cook, K. (2016).  Improving college graduation rates: A closer look at California State University.  Retrieved from Public Policy Institute of California Website:

Jaschik, S. (2018, July 10). Lies, damned lies and rankings. Retrieved from

Jaschik, S. (2018, July 16). For fate of SAT writing test, watch California. Retrieved from Inside Higher Ed website:

Jaschik, S. (2018, June 12). An ‘easy’ SAT and terrible scores. Retrieved from

Jaschik, S. (2018, June 18).  Smoking Gun on anti-Asian bias at Harvard?  Retrieved from

Jaschik, S. (2018). The 2018 inside higher ed survey of chief academic officers.  Retrieved from Inside Higher Ed Website:

Joly, K. (2018, July 13). How colleges keep up with the changing social media landscape.  Retrieved from the University Business website:

Kalfsbeek-Goetz, J. (2018).  Guided pathways: An Overview and practical applications for DEAC institutions [PowerPoint slides].

Kauffman, Hall & Associates (2018). Financial outlook: 2018 report of higher education. Retrieved from

Kennedy, K. (2018, March 06).  From FOCUS to artificial intelligence: How data has changed in higher education.  Retrieved from

Kharas, H. (2010). The Emerging middle class in developing countries. Retrieved from

Kim, C., Sussman, J. J., & Woodward, D. (2018). Financial fix. Retrieved from Business Office Magazine website:

Kreighbaum, A. (2017, May 16). Push for ‘unit records’ revived. Retrieved from

Kreighbaum, A. (2018, June 08). Private colleges give ground on student data.  Retrieved from

Kuo, I. (2018, August 31). The ‘whitening’ of Asian Americans. Retrieved from

LeBlanc, P. (2018, June 11). Three keys to fostering an innovative culture on your campus.  Retrieved from

Legon, R. & Garrett, R. (2017).  The Changing landscape CHLOE of online education.  Retrieved from Quality Matters Website:

Legon, R. & Garrett, R. (2018). CHLOE 2 the changing landscape of online education: A deeper dive.  Retrieved from Quality Matters Website.

Lieberman, M. (2018, July 18). Keeping online courses fresh: Valuable, but costly.  Retrieved from Inside Higher Ed website:

Logue, A. W. (2018, July 17). The extensive evidence of co-requisite remediation’s effectiveness. Retrieved from Inside Higher Ed website:

Long, P. (2017, March 16).  Learning analytics: Coming out from behind the curtains.  Retrieved from

Lynch, M. (2017, May 3). The a-z of education blog: Letters d-e. Retrieved from

Magda, A. J. & Buban, J. (2018). The state of innovation in higher education: A survey of academic administrators.  Retrieved from Online Learning Consortium website:

Mahon, B. (2018, May 31). Assessing and overcoming the 21st century challenges of the modern-day conservatory.  Retrieved from

Marklein, M. B. & Huong, N. L. (2018, June 18). Universities look south to recruit international students. Retrieved from

Masters in IT (2018). How big data will change our lives for the better. Retrieved from

McKenzie, L. (2018, July 9). New tool for open-access research. Retrieved from Inside Higher Ed website:

National Association for College Admission Counseling (2013).  Report of the commission on international student recruitment.  Retrieved from Inside Higher Ed Website:

National College Credit Recommendation Service (2018).  Translating noncollegiate learning and workplace training into college credit recommendations [PowerPoint slides].  Retrieved from

National Foundation for American Policy (2017).  The Importance of international students to American science and engineering.  Retrieved from National Foundation for American Policy Website:

Nganga, G, (2018, June 20). Unprepared graduates are raising our costs, say employers. Retrieved from

Northrup, P. (2018, June 15). Innovation perseverance: Launching innovative ideas into the main campus culture. Retrieved from

Parker, S. (2018, May 1). 4 capabilities for becoming information-driven. Retrieved from KM World website:

Parnell, A., Jones, D., Wesaw, A., & Brooks, D. C. (2018). Institution’s use of data and analytics for student success. Retrieved from Association for Institutional Research:

Paterson, J. (2018, June 26). Giant MOOCs succeeding in enrollment, ROI. Retrieved from

Pell Grants continue downward slide (2018). Retrieved from Public Insight website:

Pershing, S. (2018, June 11). Creating and maintaining an innovative culture through continuing education.  Retrieved from

Pillay, N. (2018, June 12). Are graduates ready for artificial intelligence? Retrieved from

Player FM. Retrieved from

Price Waterhouse Coopers (2015).  The World in 2050: Will the shift in global economic power continue?  Retrieved from Price Waterhouse Coopers Website:

Private student loan report (2018). Retrieved from MeasureOne website.  Website:

Project launched to improve web archiving worldwide (2018, July 13). Retrieved from the University World News website:

Public Policy Institute of California (2016, April). Higher education in California. Retrieved from

Pugliese, L. (2018, June 15). The science of digital growth: Exploring best practices in online programming and innovation.  Retrieved from

Radwin, D. (2016, July 05). More data on non-traditional students is needed, but we’re on the right track. Retrieved from

Ransom, T., Knepler, E., & Zapata-Gietl, C. (2018). New approaches to judging quality in higher education: Profiles of emerging methods apart from traditional accreditation.  Retrieved from Council for Higher Education Accreditation website:

Redden, E. (2018, May 11).  Rapid growth in foreign-student work program.  Retrieved from

Reese, P. (2018, June 16).  California high school grads increasingly leave state for college.  Here’s where they go. Retrieved from Sacramento Bees website:

Report: Saudi scholarship programme to sharpen focus on top universities (2016, February 10).  Retrieved from International Consultants for Education and Fairs Monitor website:

Robbins, G. (2018, August 26). San Diego universities brace for hyper-connected Generation Z.  Retrieved from San Diego Union-Tribune website:

Roser, M. & Ortiz-Ospina, E. (2018). Global rise of education.  Retrieve from Our World in Data Website:

Ruffalo Noel Levitz (2018). 2018 national freshman: Motivation to complete college report.  Retrieved from Ruffalo Noel Levitz Website:

Ruiz, N.G. (2014).  The geography of foreign students in U.S. higher education: Origins and destinations.  Retrieved from Brookings Website:

Ryan, C.L. & Bauman, K. (2016).  Education attainment in the United States: 2015. Retrieved from United States Census Bureau Website.

Safehaven (2018, June 12). The $1.5 trillion student debt bubble is about to pop. Retrieved from

Saudi Arabia’s expanding higher education capacity (2018, July 18). Retrieved from International Consultants for Education and Fairs Monitor website:

Scheuermann, M. (2017, March 29).  Data-driven decision-making: Leveraging predictive analytics more widely.  Retrieved from

Schiller, B. (2018, January 12). Want a more innovative company? Simple: Hire a more diverse workforce. Retrieved from Fast Company website:

Scholl, J. Achieving a successful application of data in population health initiatives. Retrieved from Modern Healthcare website:

Scott, J. (2018, June 13).  To tackle student cheating, we need to reimagine university assessment.  Retrieved from The Guardian website:

Sharma, Y. (2018, June 15). Universities and out digital future in a divided world.  Retrieved from

Sharma, Y. (June 19, 2018). UK visa changes ‘discriminate’ against Indian students. Retrieved from

Smith, P. (2017, March 07).  Eschewing tradition for the non-traditional: Analytics and the modern university.  Retrieved from

Sowter, B. (2018, May 28).  How to overcome obstacles and make data part of the institutional decision-making fabric.  Retrieved from

Spilovoy, T. (2018). Open education resources [PowerPoint slides].  Retrieved from

Stokes, P. & Strzalka, P. (2018, June 14). Breaking out of the status quo: Creating a culture of innovation in higher ed.  Retrieved from

Student Connections (2018). Career planning tools. Retrieved from Student Connections Website:–LplGM3tVoY7u4lGa3Uyh0U3_g7tZUbyDx1uXOjxKVu4t0W1PZu1hAMioB1NPewoKdSKNIUUCb5DTmmcjTMffSoRys_w&_hsmi=61082312

Swing, R. L. (2016). Institutional research capacity: Foundations of federal data quality. Retrieved from Association for Institutional Research website:

Swing, R. L., & Ross, L. E. (2016). A new vision for institutional research. Retrieved from Association for Institutional Research website:

Takeda-Tinker, B. (2017).  A Needed shift in defining higher education value: Using data to both create and prove value.  Retrieved from

Tandberg, D. A. & Laderman, S. A. (2018). Evaluating state funding effort for higher education. Retrieved from the Midwestern Higher Education Compact website:

Tererra, D. (2018, June 22). ‘Abiy’s Fellows’ – A new frontier to advance excellence.  Retrieved from

The Campaign for College Opportunity (2017). The Transfer maze: The high cost to students and the state of California.  Retrieved from College Campaign Website:

The Edvocate. Retrieved from

The evolution of analytics: Agile, actionable, and accurate (2018). Retrieved from Database Trends and Applications website:

Thomas, D. (2018, June 11). Innovation for tomorrow, today. Retrieved from

Townsend, L. & Tracy, P. (2017). Assessment in practice: Using backward Design and the assignment design charrette model for quality enhancement.  Retrieved from National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment Website:

Trombley, C. (2017, June 02).  Visualization and the three v’s: Managing and leveraging data in enrollment management.  Retrieved from

Twombly, M. (2017, February 28).  Metrics that matter.  Retrieved from

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (2018).  SEVIS by the numbers:  Biannual report on international student trends.  Retrieved from U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Website.

Westcliff University Department of Institutional Research (2018). F1 visa and student enrollment data [PowerPoint slides].

Yigzaw, E. (2017). Competency based education basics: Vital steps to consider before you jump in [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from

Yuan, L. (2018, August 6). A generation grows up in China without Google, Facebook or Twitter.  Retrieved from the New York Times website:

Zakrzweski, A., Beardsley, B., Kessler, D., Mende, M., Muxi, F., Naumann, M.,…Xavier, A. (2018). Global wealth 2018: Seizing the analytics advantage. Retrieved from The Boston Consulting Group website:

The Department of Institutional Research at Westcliff University gives a list of book citations that discusses different sectors of post-secondary institutions.  Topics in these books range from big data to learning outcomes.

Allen, M. J. (2003). Assessing academic programs in higher education. Hoboken, NJ. Jossey-Bass.

Banta, T. W., & Palomba, C. A. (2014). Assessment essentials: Planning, implementing and improving assessment in higher education (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass

Daniel, K. (2017). Big data and learning analytics in higher education: Current theory and practice. New York, NY: Springer

Davidson, C. N. (2017). The new education: How to revolutionize the university to prepare students for a world in flux. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Freeman Jr., S., Chambers, C. R., & King, B. R. (2016). The important role of institutional data in the development of academic programming in higher education. Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.

Gagliardi, J. S., Parnell, A., & Carpenter-Hubin, J. (2018). The analytics revolution in higher education: Big data, organizational learning, and student success. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.

Grawe, N. (2017). Demographics and the demand for higher education. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Howard, R. D., McLaughlin, G. W., Knight, W. E., & Associates (2012). The handbook of institutional research. Hoboken, NJ: Jossey Bass.

Knaflic, C. N. (2015). Storytelling with data: A data visualization guide for business professionals. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Lawson, J. (2015). Data science in higher education: A step-by-step introduction to machine learning for institutional researchers. Scotts Valley, CA: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

McGee, J. (2015). Breakpoint: The changing marketplace for higher education. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Philips, B. C., & Horowitz, J. E. (2017). Creating a data-informed culture in community colleges. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

Powers, K. (2018). Cultivating a data culture in higher education. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Powers, K. & Henderson, A. E. (2018). Cultivating a data culture in higher education. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge.

Selingo, J. J. (2015). College (un)bound: The future of higher education and what it means for students. Seattle, WA: Amazon Publishing.

Suskie, L. (2018). Assessing student learning: A common sense guide (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ. Jossey-Bass.

Terkla, D. G. (2008). Institutional research: More than just data: New directions for higher education, number 141. Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.

Tetteh, G. K. (2017). A guide to higher education: A pathway to securing admissions, scholarships, and employment. Seattle, WA: Amazon Digital Services LLC.

Vanthienen, J., & De Whitte, K. (2017). Data analytics applications in education. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach Publications.

Webber, K. L. (2018). Building capacity in institutional research and decision support in higher education. New York, NY: Springer.

Zilvinskis, J., & Borden, V. (2017). Learning analytics in higher education: New directions for higher education, number 179. Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.